On Aug. 23, 1973, a bank robbery-turned-hostage-taking began in Stockholm, Sweden; the four hostages ended up empathizing with their captors, a psychological condition now referred to as "Stockholm Syndrome."
On this date:
In 1305, Scottish rebel leader Sir William Wallace was executed by the English for treason.
In 1775, Britain's King George III proclaimed the American colonies to be in a state of "open and avowed rebellion."
In 1858, "Ten Nights in a Bar-room," a play by Timothy Shay Arthur about the perils of drinking alcohol, opened in New York.
In 1912, actor, dancer, director and choreographer Gene Kelly was born Eugene Curran Kelly in Pittsburgh.
In 1913, Copenhagen's Little Mermaid statue, inspired by the Hans Christian Andersen story, was unveiled in the harbor of the Danish capital.
In 1914, Japan declared war against Germany in World War I.
In 1926, silent film star Rudolph Valentino died in New York at age 31.
In 1927, amid protests, Italian-born anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were executed in Boston for the murders of two men during a 1920 robbery.
In 1939, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to a non-aggression treaty, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, in Moscow.
In 1944, Romanian prime minister Ion Antonescu was dismissed by King Michael, paving the way for Romania to abandon the Axis in favor of the Allies.
In 1960, Broadway librettist Oscar Hammerstein II, 65, died in Doylestown, Pa.
In 1982, Lebanon's parliament elected Christian militia leader Bashir Gemayel president; however, Gemayel was assassinated some three weeks later.
Ten years ago: Former priest John Geoghan, the convicted child molester whose prosecution sparked the sex abuse scandal that shook the Roman Catholic Church nationwide, died after another inmate attacked him in a Massachusetts prison. All-Star baseball player Bobby Bonds, slugger Barry Bonds' father, died at age 57.
Five years ago: Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama introduced his choice of running mate, Sen. Joe Biden of Delaware, before a crowd outside the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Ill. Two foreign journalists, Canadian Amanda Lindhout and Australian Nigel Brennan, were kidnapped near Mogadishu, Somalia; both were freed after 15 months in captivity. At the Beijing Olympics, the United States won gold in the women's and men's 1,600-meter relay track events. The U.S. women's basketball team beat Australia 92-65 to win a fourth straight gold medal. Angel Matos of Cuba and his coach were banned for life after the tae kwon do athlete kicked the referee in the face following his bronze-medal match disqualification.
One year ago: First lady Michelle Obama consoled relatives of worshippers gunned down at a Sikh temple in suburban Milwaukee. Lance Armstrong chose not to pursue arbitration in the drug case brought against him by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency, setting the stage for his Tour de France titles to be stripped and his name to be all but wiped from the record books of the sport he once ruled.
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